AIM at National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan ASF at ICF Consulting IMAGE at Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene MARIA at Science University of Tokyo MESSAGE at International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis MiniCAM at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) from the National Institute of Environmental Studies in Japan (Morita et al., 1994)

Atmospheric Stabilization Framework Model (ASF) from ICF Consulting in the USA (Lashof and Tirpak, 1990; Pepper et al., 1992, 1998; Sankovski et al., 2000)

Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE) from the National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene (RIVM) (Alcamo et al., 1998; de Vries et al., 1994, 1999, 2000), used in connection with the Dutch Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) WorldScan model (de Jong and Zalm, 1991), the Netherlands

Multiregional Approach for Resource and Industry Allocation (MARIA) from the Science University of Tokyo in Japan (Mori and Takahashi, 1999; Mori, 2000)

Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impact (MESSAGE) from the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Austria (Messner and Strubegger, 1995; Riahi and Roehrl, 2000)

Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the USA (Edmonds et al., 1994, 1996a, 1996b).